On the western side of Samos, there is Mt. Kerkes. Kerkes is 1440 meters high. Kerkes has no trees around its peak but it has many caves. It is the seventh highest mountain of the Aegean. On the north and west side of Kerkes, it was impossible to built large settlements. On the contrary, the east and south sides are not that steep. There you can find many villages and farms.
These mountains provided shelter to the people of Samos during dangerous times such as the 1821 revolution, the World War II and the Greek civil war (1946-1949).
For many centuries, these mountains played a vital role in Samos economy. Before the tourist-exploitation, agriculture was the main occupation of the villagers.